2020 Best Dog Food for Kidney Disease (Top 10 Reviews)

Mike PowellEdited by: Mike Powell
Abby TexasReviewed by: Abby Texas

Last Update:

Kidney disease can be extremely tricky to pick up as it only shows itself very late in its progression. If you have a dog who’s been diagnosed, though, you’ll need to give him or her some TLC.

Making choices like feeding your dog the best dog food for kidney disease, increasing water consumption, and taking advice from your vet can help improve the quality of life and add many years to your dog’s life.

Having a sick furbaby can be hard! That’s why we’re bringing you a list of dog foods that would be great for dogs with kidney disease.

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Ranked #1
Ranked #2
Ranked #3
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Blue Buffalo Life Protection Formula Adult Dog Food – Natural Dry Dog Food for Adult Dogs – Chicken and Brown Rice – 30 lb. Bag
Blue Buffalo True Solutions Blissful Belly Natural Digestive Care Adult Dry Dog Food, Chicken 24-lb
Blue Buffalo Life Protection Formula Senior Dog Food – Natural Dry Dog Food for Senior Dogs – Chicken & Brown Rice – 30 lb. Bag (596022)
Pro 1
LifeSource Bits for an extra immune boost
Formulated for sensitive stomach, but good for kidney disease too
Contains L-carnitine for energy regulation
Pro 2
Fruits and vegetables for high antioxidant level
LifeSource Bits contain vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants
Contains DHA for eye and brain health
Best Overall
Rank
Ranked #1
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Blue Buffalo Life Protection Formula Adult Dog Food – Natural Dry Dog Food for Adult Dogs – Chicken and Brown Rice – 30 lb. Bag
Pro 1
LifeSource Bits for an extra immune boost
Pro 2
Fruits and vegetables for high antioxidant level
Custom Button
Premium Option
Rank
Ranked #2
Thumbnail
Blue Buffalo True Solutions Blissful Belly Natural Digestive Care Adult Dry Dog Food, Chicken 24-lb
Pro 1
Formulated for sensitive stomach, but good for kidney disease too
Pro 2
LifeSource Bits contain vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants
Custom Button
Best For Seniors
Rank
Ranked #3
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Blue Buffalo Life Protection Formula Senior Dog Food – Natural Dry Dog Food for Senior Dogs – Chicken & Brown Rice – 30 lb. Bag (596022)
Pro 1
Contains L-carnitine for energy regulation
Pro 2
Contains DHA for eye and brain health
Custom Button
Sources researched
14
Sources researched
Customer reviews
15,119
Customer reviews
Hours spent testing
12
Hours spent testing
Products tested
10
Products tested

Best Dog Food for Kidney Disease in 2020

Blue Buffalo Life Protection Formula

Best Overall: Best Non-Prescription Diet Food Designed for Kidney Disease

Overall Score88%
Protein Count & Quality90%
Reduced Sodium & Phosphorus90%
Added Antioxidants90%
Omega Fatty Acid Count85%
Affordability85%

PROS

  • Lower in phosphorus than many other dog foods 
  • Good Omega fatty acid levels 
  • Fruits and vegetables for high antioxidant level 
  • LifeSource Bits for an extra immune boost

CONS

  • No flavor variations

You’ll see Blue Buffalo a lot on this list, but there’s no denying they make great dog foods for kidney disease. This dog food would suit most dogs, with a moderate protein count (24%) and a moderate fat count (14%). 

If you’d rather not buy a prescription diet food or one that’s designed for kidney disease specifically, then we recommend this kibble as your best choice. If your dog is suffering from severe renal failure or long-term chronic kidney disease, we recommend one lower in protein.

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Kidney Supporting Properties 

With 24% protein, this dog food would be good for dogs who need something with a lower protein count but still need muscle maintenance. 

14% fat should be enough to fuel energetic dogs, and if your dog is a little less active we suggest adding in a daily walk to burn off any excess fat. 

It’s also slightly lower in phosphorus, has moderate levels of Omega 3 fatty acids, and some glucosamine and chondroitin to keep your dog’s joints tough too. 

LifeSource Bits for Immune Boost 

One thing we like a lot about Blue Buffalo’s dog food is their inclusion of their LifeSource Bits. These are little cold-formed pellets packed with vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. 

These will be a great little booster to your dog’s immune system, and help to reduce inflammation and encourage healing.

Blue Buffalo True Solutions Blissful Belly Digestive Care Formula

Premium Option: Best For Dogs with Kidney Disease and Sensitive Stomach

Overall Score87%
Protein Count & Quality90%
Reduced Sodium & Phosphorus85%
Added Antioxidants90%
Omega Fatty Acid Count85%
Affordability85%

PROS

  • Formulated for sensitive stomach, but good for kidney disease too 
  • LifeSource Bits contain vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants 
  • Fruits, vegetables, and fiber-rich 
  • Good protein level

CONS

  • May not be suitable for dogs sensitive to poultry or potato

Dogs with kidney disease aren’t immune to sensitive stomachs! If your pup suffers from both, this “prescription diet” dry food is designed for digestive support but it’s pretty good for kidney disease too.

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Stomach & Kidney Help 

Probiotics and prebiotics assist with digestion, and the ingredient list on this veterinary diet kibble is full of wholesome, real food ingredients that are easy on the tummy. 

Easier digestion also means less work for the kidneys to do, and the absence of any artificial ingredients also makes a big difference. 

With 24% protein, 13% fat, and 0,7% phosphorus, this would be good for dogs with kidney disease who also have rebellious stomachs.

Blue Buffalo Life Protection Formula Senior

Best For Seniors

Overall Score87%
Protein Count & Quality90%
Reduced Sodium & Phosphorus90%
Added Antioxidants85%
Omega Fatty Acid Count85%
Affordability85%

PROS

  • Contains L-carnitine for energy regulation 
  • Vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants 
  • Contains DHA for eye and brain health 
  • Lower in protein

CONS

  • Slightly pricey

Dogs with kidney disease can be any age, but it affects senior dogs more often. A senior dog’s diet is already different to an adult dog, so it can be hard to find a kibble that would work for them when they show signs of kidney disease. 

This is our choice for seniors who suffer from moderate kidney disease. If your senior is in advanced stages of kidney disease, we would suggest the above Best Kidney Support food, Blue Buffalo Natural Veterinary Diet KS Kidney Support.

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Senior-Specific Nutrition 

You’ll find a bunch of nutrients that will be quite beneficial to seniors, including DHA (eye and brain health), Glucosamine (joint health), L-carnitine (metabolic regulation), and Omegas (skin and coat health). 

In addition, the protein count is at 18%, which is good for moderately active seniors. The fat count of 10% may be too little if your senior is still quite spritely and likes their exercise.

Blue Buffalo Natural Veterinary Diet KS Kidney Support

Best Kidney Support Food

Overall Score88%
Protein Count & Quality90%
Reduced Sodium & Phosphorus90%
Added Antioxidants90%
Omega Fatty Acid Count90%
Affordability80%

PROS

  • Created specifically for kidney support 
  • Grain-free for easier digestion 
  • Enhanced with vitamins and minerals 
  • Very low in both protein and phosphorus

CONS

  • It’s pricey 
  • May be too high in fat for inactive dogs

If your vet has recommended a kidney-specific dog’s diet or you feel your dog would benefit from a veterinary diet dog food designed specifically for kidney disease in dogs, why not give this one a try? 

Created by the same company as our top choice, this food is tweaked slightly to better accommodate pets with more severe kidney disease.

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Nutrients for Kidney Support 

The protein is quite a bit lower in this food, at 14%. The fat is higher, at 18%, which may cause your pooch to put on some weight if they aren’t quite active. If they’re still able, it’s a good idea to introduce some daily exercise to combat that. 

The phosphorus level is lowered quite significantly, which will be a big help for your dog’s kidneys. The downside is that the calcium level is also lowered, so if your dog is predisposed to joint dysplasia they may need calcium and glucosamine supplements. 

It has great Omega 3 levels (1.5%), and added vitamins and minerals, as well as L-carnitine.

Diamond Naturals Lamb Meal & Rice Formula

Best Value For Money

Overall Score88%
Protein Count & Quality90%
Reduced Sodium & Phosphorus85%
Added Antioxidants90%
Omega Fatty Acid Count80%
Affordability95%

PROS

  • Very affordable, at less than $1 per pound 
  • Good protein and fat levels for dogs with renal disease 
  • Added L-carnitine for metabolic regulation 
  • Superfood ingredients are packed with antioxidants

CONS

  • No joint support

If your dog has kidney disease and you’re on a budget, there’s no need to choose the most expensive veterinary diet kidney-specific food. This offering from Diamond Naturals is our Best Value for Money pick, and it rivals the top competitors in terms of quality.

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Nice Price, Nice Quality 

At less than a dollar per pound, you may be surprised at the high quality of this dog food. Although it’s not specifically for kidney disease, it’s made from premium quality ingredients that are easy for dogs to digest and won’t be hard on the kidneys. 

Dogs with kidney disease would benefit from this dog food thanks to its moderate protein count, antioxidant-rich superfood ingredients, and added vitamins, minerals, and L-carnitine. 

Although it doesn’t contain glucosamine or high Omega levels, it would be a solid option for dogs who need a kidney maintenance diet rather than support for severe kidney disease.

Forza10 Nutraceutic Active Kidney Renal Support

Runner-Up Kidney Support Food

Overall Score85%
Protein Count & Quality80%
Reduced Sodium & Phosphorus90%
Added Antioxidants85%
Omega Fatty Acid Count90%
Affordability80%

PROS

  • Good protein level 
  • Lower phosphorus 
  • Nice high Omega 3 fatty acids 
  • Formulated for renal failure

CONS

  • A little low in moisture

It can be hard to find “prescription diet” or “veterinary diet” dog foods that support kidney function without containing low-quality ingredients. 

If you want to feed your dog a kibble that’s geared towards kidney disease but still contains healthy stuff, this is our second choice.

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Kidney-Friendly Nutrients 

18% protein, 16.5% fat, 0.6% phosphorus, 0.1% sodium, and 1.6% Omega 3s make this dog’s diet pretty good for the kidneys. 

The downside is that there aren’t any fruits or vegetables in this kibble. That may reduce the antioxidant level a little.

Blue Buffalo Natural Veterinary Diet KS Kidney Support

Best Wet Food

Overall Score88%
Protein Count & Quality90%
Reduced Sodium & Phosphorus90%
Added Antioxidants85%
Omega Fatty Acid Count90%
Affordability85%

PROS

  • Low in protein and phosphorus 
  • High in moisture 
  • Added Omega 3 fatty acids 
  • Not too high in calories per can

CONS

  • May not be suitable for dogs who are sensitive to potatoes or chicken

Although we always recommend dry dog food over wet food, sometimes canned dog food is necessary.

Whether it’s to soothe a dog with a mouth injury, for a senior who can’t handle a dry dog food diet, or a kibble topper, choosing a kidney-friendly wet food is essential.

It can be tough to find a wet dog food that is good for the kidneys, but this choice from Blue Buffalo wins first place.

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High in Moisture 

One of the useful things about wet food is that it’s high in moisture. The more water your dog ingests, the easier the kidneys will be able to do their job. At 78% moisture, this food will add a little extra water to your dog’s body. 

Their ingredient list is also high quality, with real meat and vegetables and no low-quality fillers. They make sure to reference the low phosphorus count and the added Omega 3s, so dogs with renal disease will get a good dose of kidney support from this canned food.

Nutro Wholesome Essentials

Best With Joint Support

Overall Score86%
Protein Count & Quality90%
Reduced Sodium & Phosphorus85%
Added Antioxidants85%
Omega Fatty Acid Count80%
Affordability85%

PROS

  • Good quality protein from chicken
  • Moderate in protein and calories
  • Added vitamins and minerals
  • Joint support from glucosamine and chondroitin

CONS

  • Slightly lower in Omega 3 fatty acids than others

Even if you’re choosing a low protein food for dogs with kidney disease, you still need to be mindful of if they need extra joint support. Some breeds are prone to joint dysplasia, and they’ll need a dose of glucosamine to keep their joints strong. 

This is our choice for the best food with glucosamine. It’s suitable for dogs with kidney problems that are moderate, but most likely not good for those with advanced kidney failure.

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Moderate Protein 

With 21% protein, this food would be helpful for dogs whose kidney disease isn’t too advanced. The Omegas are also lower than some others, but it contains added vitamins and antioxidants that will keep your dog’s immune system strong. 

Of course, there’s also glucosamine and chondroitin to fortify their joints and prevent any accidents.

Diamond Naturals Large Breed Puppy Formula

Best For Puppies

Overall Score85%
Protein Count & Quality85%
Reduced Sodium & Phosphorus80%
Added Antioxidants90%
Omega Fatty Acid Count80%
Affordability90%

PROS

  • Moderate protein for a puppy 
  • Contains L-carnitine 
  • Added vitamins and minerals 
  • Contains DHA

CONS

  • Phosphorus is not lowered, although it’s at acceptable levels 
  • No joint support

It’s rare for puppies to be diagnosed with kidney disease, unless it’s acute and is caused by something like poisoning. But if you do happen to have a puppy who’s struggling with kidney disease, choosing a good dry food can help prevent their acute kidney disease from turning into chronic kidney disease.

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Puppy-Specific Food 

Although this dry food states that it’s for large breed puppies, it would be suitable for most others too. The phosphorus level is up at 1%, but that’s right in the AAFCO standards. 

Puppies are naturally more active than adults, so 27% protein and 15% fat should be perfect for a little bouncer. 

It contains DHA, L-carnitine, and vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants to keep your little pooch healthy. If your dog is predisposed to joint problems, you may just need to add a glucosamine supplement.

Natural Balance L.I.D. Limited Ingredient Diets

Best Limited Ingredient

Overall Score84%
Protein Count & Quality90%
Reduced Sodium & Phosphorus80%
Added Antioxidants85%
Omega Fatty Acid Count80%
Affordability85%

PROS

  • Single protein source 
  • Limited ingredient 
  • Protein counts vary 
  • Grain-free

CONS

  • Lower in Omegas than others

Allergies can have a negative effect on kidney function, so if you’d prefer to feed  your dog a limited ingredient diet, Natural  Balance is recommended for pups with kidney disease. 

It’s important to note that the protein and fat levels differ by flavor. That means that you can choose what’s most appropriate for your dog at the time, and there’s something for all dogs, regardless of whether their kidney disease is moderate or advanced.

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Nutritional Information 

A quick comparison of flavors shows that each one varies in terms of protein content. For example, the Lamb & Brown Rice formula will give your dog 22% protein, Salmon & Sweet Potato contains 24% protein, and Sweet Potato & Bison offers a lower 20%. 

The phosphorus levels also change, but all are within acceptable range. The ingredients are simple and contain a single protein and gluten-free grain. It’s lacking slightly in antioxidants in comparison to others, but it will keep your dog’s stomach happy and reduce the chances of allergies.


Testing Protocol & Criteria Used For Evaluation

Criteria #1: Protein Count & Quality

One of the misconceptions about kidney disease is that you have to find a super low-protein dog food for your pup. Low protein dog foods will be helpful in taking some strain off the kidneys as they don’t have to work so hard to remove protein waste products. 

But this doesn’t necessarily mean you need to find the dog food with the lowest possible protein count to prevent renal failure. It all depends on your pup. 

If your dog has been diagnosed with late-stage kidney failure, then reducing protein drastically can reduce the workload on the kidneys and make your dog more comfortable, but it’s certainly not a cure. It will help to slow the progression of the disease. 

If your dog is still young and relatively healthy and is in the beginning stages of kidney disease, a reduction in protein can help ease the kidneys’ workload. But protein is still an essential component of nutrition, and dogs need it to maintain muscle mass and stay strong. 

We’ve made sure the foods we’ve chosen are a good mix between moderate protein (up to 25%) and low protein (10%-20%) from healthy sources.

Criteria #2: Reduced Sodium & Phosphorus Levels

Excess sodium and phosphorus is filtered in and removed by the kidneys. If the kidneys stop working properly, it can be easy for these two to build up in the body and cause other health problems. 

We can’t remove these completely from dog foods, but we can definitely choose a dog food that is lower in sodium and phosphorus. Most dog foods are good with this, and don’t contain excessive amounts of either. 

We’ve done our best to choose foods that contain appropriate amounts of sodium and phosphorus for dogs with impaired kidney function.

Criteria #3: Added Antioxidants

Antioxidants are wonderful little health boosters that improve the immune system, reduce inflammation, and just generally lead to better overall quality of life. 

They’re found in fruits and vegetables, along with an abundance of vitamins and minerals. The bonus is that these kinds of foods are really easy for dogs with lower kidney function to digest and don’t contain many toxins or things that need to be filtered out by the kidneys. 

We’ve made sure to include dog foods that contain healthy, wholesome fruits and vegetables as their carb sources.

Criteria #4: Omega Fatty Acids

Omegas, in particular Omega 3 fatty acids, are extremely useful to find in a dog food for fighting kidney disease. 

They do wonders for reducing inflammation, which creates a healthier environment in your pet’s body. This means an improved immune system, less pain and discomfort, and better overall kidney function. 

Omegas also help make digestion easier, and give your dog a healthy-looking, shiny, and soft coat, and moisturized, nourished skin. 

We’ve made mention of the Omega 3 fatty acid content as well as Omega 6, and made sure to choose foods that contain good amounts of both of them from great quality sources.

Criteria #5: Affordability

As always, the affordability of a dog food is important to us, and we know it’s important to you too. 

There’s nothing wrong with buying a top of the range kibble if you can afford to spend a little more. But don’t feel that being on a budget means you’ll be stuck buying the low-end stuff. You also don’t absolutely have to buy a prescription diet food. 

Our Best Value for Money option is a dog food that’s of the highest quality, is good for dogs with kidney disease, and won’t break the bank. 

We also understand that a happy pet parent means a happier pet! Your pup can pick up on your stress, and we aim to provide options for those of all financial standings so that feeding your pup doesn’t become a stress in itself.


Questions & Answers

What breeds are more prone to kidney disease?

Kidney disease in dogs can affect any breed, it’s more common in some breeds than it is in others. Dog breeds that are more likely to suffer from kidney disease are: 

  • Shar-Peis 
  • Bull Terriers 
  • Cocker Spaniels 
  • Cavalier King Charles Spaniels 
  • Yorkshire Terriers 
  • West Highland White Terriers 
  • Jack Russells 
  • Boxers 
  • Lhasa Apsos 
  • German Shepherds 

Around 83% of kidney failure cases are these breeds! If your pup is one of these, it’s a good idea to take extra care of their kidneys from the start. 

There’s also evidence to suggest that purebreds are more susceptible to kidney failure than cross breeds. 

Golden Retrievers, Shih Tzus, and Rottweilers are prone to something called renal dysplasia. If not caught and treated early on, it can lead to renal failure.

What are the symptoms of kidney disease in dogs?

Kidney disease can be acute or chronic. They present slightly different symptoms, and it’s important to know the causes and signs of both so you can get them treated accordingly. 

Acute Kidney Disease 

This kind of kidney failure has a sudden onset and usually a well-defined reason behind it. One of the most common causes of acute kidney failure is poisoning, often by antifreeze or other chemical substances, or even by your pup eating grapes or raisins

Symptoms of acute kidney failure include: 

  • Excessive drinking. 
  • Urinating more often than usual. 
  • Lethargy and weakness. 
  • Vomiting. 
  • Excessive drooling. 
  • Loss  of appetite. 
  • Disorientation or loss of coordination. 

Acute kidney failure can be treated, and while some dogs may make a full recovery, others may develop worse kidney problems from there on, leading to chronic kidney failure. 

Chronic Kidney Disease 

Chronic kidney failure can occur in young dogs, but it’s most common in older pups. It can be quite hard to pinpoint, as it develops slowly and often only shows symptoms once about ⅔ of the kidney function is lost. 

Unfortunately, there is no cure for kidney failure. If it’s diagnosed early, some simple lifestyle changes can slow the progression and ensure your pup will still live a happy, comfortable, healthy life. 

Keep a careful eye out for these signs and symptoms of kidney failure, especially in older dogs: 

  • Drinking a lot more than usual. 
  • Urinating a lot more than usual. 
  • Blood in the urine. 
  • Incontinence. 
  • Loss of appetite. 
  • Weight loss. 
  • Bad breath. 
  • Vomiting. 
  • Diarrhea or constipation. 
  • Pale gums (anemia). 
  • Loss of coordination. 

It’s important to note that seeing one or two of these doesn’t mean your dog has kidney failure! Three or more signs could be cause for concern and warrant a vet’s visit. 

Unfortunately, other conditions often develop alongside long-term kidney disease as a result of toxins not being flushed from the body. These include: 

What should I look for in the best dog food for kidney disease?

You may have seen that wet food is recommended for kidney disease due to its added water content. Dogs with kidney failure need more water than usual, to help the filtration process in the kidneys. 

But we don’t recommend switching entirely to wet food. High quality dry dog food is important for tooth and gum health, and is packed with more nutrition than wet food is. 

Canned food is also extremely low in protein while being very high in calories and often in sodium, so feeding your dog wet food alone could result in an overweight, uncomfortable pup. Extra weight can make the symptoms of kidney disease worse. 

If your dog does need more calories, then by all means, adding some wet food to his or her dry kibble is great. It’s also a good option for old dogs who can no longer chew kibble, although you’ll need to be careful to feed them the right amount so they don’t gain too much weight. 

When shopping for the best dog food for kidney disease, consider the following things: 

Reduced Sodium Levels 

As we’ve already mentioned, dog food that’s high in sodium can make your dog’s kidneys work overtime. If the kidneys aren’t filtering sodium properly, it can lead to a build-up in the body, which can have other undesirable health consequences for your dog. 

Dogs with kidney disease are also more susceptible to heart disease and sodium can increase blood pressure, so it’s important to make sure the sodium levels are regulated for both of these. AAFCO standards keep sodium at a good level, but lower than average is a good idea. 

Antioxidants 

Antioxidants are highly useful little health bombs. Vitamins and minerals fall under antioxidants, and they’re needed by your dog’s body to eliminate free radicals and help prevent cells from being damaged. 

They’re also great for boosting the immune system, which can help more than you realize when dealing with a dog with kidney disease. A strong immune system is necessary to prevent complications arising from the kidney disease. 

Making sure your dog has a good dose of antioxidants in their food won’t cure kidney disease. But it can significantly improve your pup’s quality of life and health. 

Omega Fatty Acids 

Omega 3 fatty acids in particular can help kidney function by reducing inflammation, which in turn takes some pressure off the kidneys and improves your dog’s comfort. 

It’s important to note that Omega fatty acids can’t be produced by the body. Your dog needs to get them in their meal, so choosing a product with high Omega 3 fatty acid levels is important, even more so for a dog with kidney disease. 

They also nourish and moisturize the skin and coat, so if your dog tends to have skin allergies they should improve noticeably. 

Reduced Phosphorus Levels 

Phosphorus is an important mineral in the body and helps to maintain strong bones and teeth. But when your dog’s kidneys are compromised, it can build up in the body and poison your pooch from the inside out. 

For this reason, it’s important to choose a dog kibble that has lowered phosphorus levels. Most dog foods have acceptable levels. 

Moderate Protein Levels 

Moderate – not low! One of the most common mistakes pet parents make when dealing with kidney disease in dogs is to remove as much protein as they can from their dog’s diet. 

Protein is still a necessary nutrient that maintains muscle mass and serves other functions in your dog’s body! Dogs with kidney disease still need it – just not as much of it. 

The waste products from protein can be hard on the kidneys. A reduced level of protein can take a bit of the workload off the kidneys and allow them some space to rest. 

It’s also very important that protein sources should be of high quality. Make sure there are no animal byproducts, unnamed proteins, or vaguely named proteins like “animal meat”. 

If your dog has very advanced kidney disease, then a very low protein choice may be best. 

Wholesome Ingredients 

Even dogs who are perfectly healthy don’t deserve cheap, low-quality filler ingredients! For dogs with kidney failure, it’s even more important to choose a dog kibble containing healthy, wholesome, real food ingredients

Steer clear of anything artificial, including flavors, colors, and preservatives. Animal byproducts should be avoided, as should grains containing gluten (corn, wheat, soy). 

Aside from that, wholesome ingredients are easier to digest and have fewer toxins in them that need to be filtered out, taking some pressure off the kidneys and improving kidney function. 

You want to see good quality protein sources (single source protein is helpful for dogs with kidney disease), fruits and vegetables (they’re packed with antioxidants), and possibly grains without gluten, like rice, barley, or oats. 

Other Supplements 

Dogs who need joint support would benefit from a dog’s diet containing glucosamine and chondroitin

Other things that are great to see include L-carnitine, which helps dogs regulate their metabolism, added vitamins, DHA and EPA (especially necessary for puppies), and probiotics and prebiotics.